I was having terrible trouble with my Lenovo Laptop on Windows 10
The Microphone was feeding back terribly and I couldn't use it without awful,constant sound pollution.
I have to keep my microphone enabled as I am on a lot of conference calls every day.
I finally found I had to do the following:
1. Right click on the speaker/volume icon on the Taskbar
2. Left click on Sound Settings
3. Under Input
select Device Properties
4. Under Related Settings
click Additional device properties
5. On the Microphone Properties
dialogue box progress to the tab Listen
6. Untick the Listen to this Device
tick box and click Apply
Finally the feedback torture was gone!!